BIOL 1322

Nutrition & Diet Therapy I

BIOL1322

Updated August 18, 2011

  • State Approval Code: 1905015109
  • Semester Credit Hours: 3
  • Lecture Hours per Week: 3
  • Lab Hours per Week:
  • Contact Hours per Semester: 48

Catalog Description

Lecture hours = 3, Lab hours = 0
This course will examine the chemical, physical and sensory properties of foods and examine nutritional requirements for maintaining a healthy diet. Nutritional concerns relating to weight loss, pregnancy, food preservation and nutritional deficiencies/disorders will be examined. Dietary analyses will promote nutritional awareness in daily food consumption.

Course Curriculum

Basic Intellectual Compentencies in the Core Curriculum

  • Reading
  • Writing
  • Speaking
  • Listening
  • Critical thinking
  • Computer literacy

Perspectives in the Core Curriculum

  • Establish broad and multiple perspectives on the individual in relationship to the larger society and world in which he/she lives, and to understand the responsibilities of living in a culturally and ethnically diversified world.
  • Stimulate a capacity to discuss and reflect upon individual, political, economic, and social aspects of life in order to understand ways in which to be a responsible member of society.
  • Recognize the importance of maintaining health and wellness.
  • Develop a capacity to use knowledge of how technology and science affect their lives.
  • Develop personal values for ethical behavior.
  • Develop the ability to make aesthetic judgments.
  • Use logical reasoning in problem solving.
  • Integrate knowledge and understand the interrelationships of the scholarly disciplines.

Core Components and Related Exemplary Educational Objectives

Natural Sciences

  • To understand and apply method and appropriate technology to the study of natural sciences.
  • To recognize scientific and quantitative methods and the differences between these approaches and other methods of inquiry and to communicate findings, analyses, and interpretation both orally and in writing.
  • To identify and recognize the differences among competing scientific theories.
  • To demonstrate knowledge of the major issues and problems facing modern science, including issues that touch upon ethics, values, and public policies.
  • To demonstrate knowledge of the interdependence of science and technology and their influence on, and contribution to, modern culture.

Instructional Goals and Purposes

Panola College's instructional goals include 1) creating an academic atmosphere in which students may develop their intellects and skills and 2) providing courses so students may receive a certificate/an associate degree or transfer to a senior institution that offers baccalaureate degrees.

General Course Objectives

Upon the completion of this course, the student should gain an understanding of the following general course objectives:
-demonstrate an understanding of the fundamental concepts and principles related to nutritional science.
-identify the role of proper nutrition as related to the overall health and proper function of the human body.
-analyze and draw conclusions from data associated with proper or improper nutritional intakes.
-apply nutritional guidelines and concepts to improve an individual’s assessment of nutritional needs.
-identify that nutritional needs can change as an individual grows and ages.
-identify the importance of scientific research in establishing dietary guidelines and in developing new technologies associated with the improvement of an individual’s health and well-being.

Specific Course Objectives

Upon the successful completion of this course, the student should have an understanding of the following specific course objectives:
-identify nutrients and the role they contribute to the overall health of an individual.
-identify different tools used to assess and evaluate the dietary intake of nutrients.
-discuss the role of the various body systems as they contribute to nutrient digestion, absorption, transport and regulation and the removal of wastes from the body.
-discuss the structure, dietary sources, biological functions, digestion and absorption of carbohydrates, lipids and proteins.
-discuss the sources, functions, potentials for deficiencies or toxicities and recommended intakes for each vitamin and mineral.
-identify the importance of energy balance in the maintenance of a healthy body weight.
-identify the advantages of a healthy active lifestyle and discuss the utilization of glucose during times of physical exertion.
-identify the causes, physical effects, and treatment options for various eating disorders.
-identify the role of proper nutrition in assessing growth and development through various stages of life.
-discuss food safety as related to foodborne illness, environmental contamination, public health and food preservation.

General Description of Each Lecture or Discussion

The students are required to comprehend the following course content:
UNIT 1: NUTRITION/NUTRITIONAL TOOLS/HUMAN BODY
NUTRITION
-define nutrition.
-define nutrients; identify three characteristics of an essential nutrient.
-list the major causes of death in the United States that are associated with the diet.
-identify the major nutrient classes and describe their function in the human body.
-describe the basic plan for health promotion and disease prevention.
-explain the main objective of Healthy People 2010.
-identify the nutrition related challenges of Healthy People 2010.
-compare/contrast hunger, appetite and satiety.
-discuss how satiety is regulated.
-define hormone; identify the role of endorphins, ghrelin, neuropeptide Y, leptin, serotonin and cholecystokinin as related to hunger or satiety.
-describe the current American diet.
-describe factors that influence the development of food habits.
-utilize the scientific method as a means to evaluate nutrition claims and advice.
-identify the risks of binge drinking; identify the corresponding amount of alcohol that is represented in
binge drinking.
NUTRITIONAL TOOLS
-relate variety, balance and moderation to a healthy diet plan.
-compare nutrient density and energy density.
-identify and define the three general categories that relate to the body’s nutritional state.
-identify the ABCDEs of nutritional assessment.
-list healthy practices/habits that help maintain nutritional health.
-identify the different food groups and range of servings associated with the USDA food guide pyramid.
-identify the different color bands associated with MyPyramid.
-list the dietary guidelines and indicate the diseases these guidelines are designed to prevent or minimize.
-compare RDA, AI and DV.
-identify why daily values are used on food labels.
-interpret information located on a food label.
-identify definitions related to comparative and absolute nutrient claims on food labels.
THE HUMAN BODY
-define cell; identify the function of the plasma membrane, cytoplasm and various organelles located within a cell.
-identify and provide functions of the four types of tissues.
-identify the functions of the organ systems of the human body.
-identify several nutritional diseases that have a genetic link.
-compare mechanical and chemical changes that occur during digestion and identify where these changes occur.
-identify the functions of the major organs of the digestive system including accessory organs.
-identify the major enzymes involved in digestion processes including their location and substrate.
-identify major hormones involved in digestion; include their function, production sites, targets and actions.
-compare active and passive absorption.
-identify the importance of the hepatic portal system and the lymphatic system to digestion.
-identify the major sites of absorption for different nutrients.
-contrast the transport of fat- and water-soluble nutrients.
-discuss the relationship between nutrition and immunity.
-identify the cause, symptoms and dietary modifications for major digestive tract disorders (ulcers, heartburn,
constipation, hemorrhoids and irritable bowel syndrome).
UNIT 2: CARBOHYDRATES/LIPIDS/PROTEINS
CARBOHYDRATES
-classify simple and complex carbohydrates according to structure and food sources.
-compare and provide examples of monosaccharides, disaccharides and polysaccharides.
-define and identify the importance of glycogen; identify sites in the body that store glycogen.
-compare insoluble versus soluble fiber in regard to food source and physiological effects.
-compare nutritive and alternative sweeteners.
-identify the role of the four major enzymes involved in carbohydrate digestion.
-identify the site of carbohydrate absorption.
-identify the role/function that carbohydrates have in the body.
-indicate the production site and effect of the hormones insulin, glucagon and epinephrine in blood glucose regulation.
-compare/contrast type 1 and type 2 diabetes in regard to occurrence, cause, risk factors and characteristics.
-identify health benefits associated with dietary fiber.
-identify the RDA for carbohydrates and the AI for dietary fiber.
-identify several problems associated with high fiber diets; with high sugar diets.
-identify the causes of dental caries; explain measures that will reduce dental caries.
-compare glycemic index and glycemic load.
-explain the digestive defect associated with lactose maldigestion and provide practical suggestions for dietary modifications to counter this problem.
LIPIDS
-identify the four classes of lipids and the role of each in nutritional health.
-describe the chemical composition and physical characteristics of fatty acids.
-distinguish between saturated and unsaturated fatty acids in terms of structure and food sources.
-distinguish between omega-3 and omega-6 fatty acids and provide major examples.
-distinguish structurally between cis and trans fatty acids.
-discuss lipid digestion and absorption.
-identify the role of bile and lipase in lipid digestion.
-relate fatty acid chain length to two mechanisms of transport in the body.
-identify the role of chylomicrons, VLDL, LDL and HDL in the body.
-identify various risk factors associated with cardiovascular disease; discuss the relationship between dietary lipid intake and heart disease.
-identify the various roles/functions of fatty acids, triglycerides, phospholipids and cholesterol in the body.
-define hydrogenation; relate hydrogenation to trans fats.
-identify recommendations from the American Heart Association concerning total fat, saturated and trans fat and cholesterol intake.
PROTEINS
-identify the basic building block of a protein; describe the chemical composition and physical characteristics of amino acids.
-compare essential and nonessential amino acids; compare complete and incomplete proteins.
-describe the concept of complementary proteins.
-identify the simplified steps in protein synthesis; identify the role of mRNA and tRNA in this process.
-identify several examples of protein sources from plants and animals.
-discuss protein digestion and absorption.
-identify the role of trypsin and pepsin in protein digestion.
-identify examples of various roles/functions proteins have in the human body.
-differentiate between positive protein balance, negative protein balance and protein equilibrium.
-identify and calculate the RDA for protein.
-discuss potential hazards of consuming too much protein in the diet.
-discuss the importance of consuming plant sources of protein.
-compare the two protein deficiency diseases kwashiorkor and marasmus.
UNIT 3: ENERGY BALANCE & WEIGHT CONTROL/VITAMINS/WATER & MINERALS
ENERGY BALANCE AND WEIGHT CONTROL
-define energy balance; compare positive and negative energy balance.
-identify the purpose of a bomb calorimeter.
-describe the uses of energy (energy outputs) by the body.
-compare direct and indirect calorimetry.
-identify the formula used to calculate BMI; relate BMI values to healthy, overweight and obese.
-define obesity and explain the relationship between heredity and environment in promoting obesity.
-identify several principles of a sound weight-loss program.
-identify several tools/methods that can be used to diagnose/evaluate obesity.
-compare upper body and lower body obesity.
-identify the three major strategies or keys to successful weight loss.
-define behavior modification; relate to stimulus control, self-monitoring, chain-breaking, relapse prevention and cognitive restructuring; provide examples of each.
-identify several characteristics of a “popular” or “fad” diet.
-identify several classes of medications for weight loss consideration.
-indicate several treatment options that could be considered in the treatment of severe obesity.
VITAMINS
-define vitamin; identify and differentiate between fat soluble and water soluble vitamins.
-identify why toxicity risk is greater with fat soluble vitamins as compared to water soluble.
-identify the major functions and deficiency symptoms for each vitamin.
-list several important food sources for each vitamin.
-identify several vitamins that could pose toxicity symptoms if excess consumption occurs.
-identify specific vitamins that link to specific disorders/deficiencies (for example, folate to neural tube defects and macrocytic anemia).
-evaluate the use of vitamin supplements with respect to potential benefits and hazards to the human body.
WATER AND MINERALS
-compare intracellular and extracellular fluids.
-identify the major functions of water in the human body.
-identify the AI for water intake for adult women and men.
-identify the specific role of ADH and aldosterone in fluid conservation.
-differentiate between a major mineral and a trace mineral.
-identify several factors that influence the bioavailability of minerals from food.
-identify the role/function of each of the major and trace minerals.
-identify a major food source(s) of each of the major and trace minerals.
-identify deficiency and toxicity symptoms for the major and trace minerals.
-compare heme and nonheme iron.
-define hypertension; identify several causes/risk factors associated with hypertension.
-define osteoporosis; identify factors that would prevent/reduce the risk of developing osteoporosis.
-compare cortical and trabecular bone.
UNIT 4: FITNESS & SPORT/EATING DISORDERS/UNDERNUTRITION/FOOD SAFETY
FITNESS AND SPORT
-identify several benefits of regular moderate physical activity.
-design/identify components of a fitness program.
-identify energy sources used by resting and working muscle cells.
-identify the role of ATP and phosphocreatine in muscle cells.
-compare advantages and disadvantages of anaerobic and aerobic glucose (carbohydrate) breakdown.
-identify types of physical activities associated with anaerobic glucose, aerobic glucose and fat breakdown.
-identify the role of fat and protein as an energy source.
-identify how an athlete can estimate calorie needs/requirements; identify principles for meeting overall nutrient (carbohydrate, fat, protein, vitamin and mineral) requirements in a training diet.
-describe carbohydrate loading and its application to physical activity.
-discuss problems associated with rapid weight loss due to dehydration.
-identify the importance of water and/or sports drinks during exercise.
-compare heat exhaustion, heat cramps and heatstroke.
-define ergogenic; evaluate the effectiveness/health concerns associated with current, popular ergogenic aids.
EATING DISORDERS
-define eating disorder; describe factors that contribute to eating disorders.
-identify early warning signs of eating disorders.
-identify typical characteristics associated with anorexia nervosa and bulimia nervosa.
-identify symptoms associated with anorexia and bulimia; relate these general symptoms to physical effects expressed by the human body.
-identify several behaviors associated to individuals with anorexia and bulimia.
-discuss treatment options for anorexic and bulimic individuals.
-identify the role of excessive exercise in eating disorders.
-identify the three major characteristics associated with female athlete triad.
-discuss characteristics associated with binge eating disorder; identify how binge eating disorder differs from bulimia.
-identify several strategies/recommendations that would reduce or prevent eating disorders.
FOOD SAFETY/UNDERNUTRITION
-define foodborne illness; identify the types of microorganisms that can cause foodborne illness.
-identify the types of foods most likely to be involved in foodborne illness.
-identify individuals that are particularly susceptible to foodborne illness.
-discuss reasons that foodborne illness is becoming more common.
-identify the specific responsibilities of the USDA, EPA, FDA and the CDC.
-compare and contrast different methods of food preservation.
-discuss the sources and prevention methods for various microbes.
-discuss rules/procedures that reduce or prevent foodborne illness.
-define food additive; discuss why food additives are used in foods; explain the regulatory process concerning these additives.
-describe the role of the FDA in protecting the food supply.
-distinguish between intentional and incidental food additives.
-identify examples of natural substances that are present in foods that can cause illness.
-discuss sources and preventative measures of potential environmental contaminants in our food supply.
-define pesticide; identify possible long-term health effects/complications associated with pesticide exposure.
-evaluate the consequences of undernutrition during critical periods of an individual’s life.
-examine undernutrition in the United States and identify programs established to combat this problem.
-examine undernutrition in the developing world and evaluate the major obstacles that hinder a solution.
-outline some possible solutions to undernutrition in the developing world.
-consider how biotechnology may help solve the food shortage/distribution problem in the developing world.
UNIT 5: LIFE STAGES
PREGNANCY & BREASTFEEDING
-identify the importance for planning for pregnancy; identify potentially harmful effects that could be modified when planning for pregnancy.
-define trimester; identify potential problems that can occur in fetal development during the first trimester.
-identify dietary substances that may place the mother or fetus at risk.
-compare low-birth weight and small for gestational age infants.
-identify features that predict a successful pregnancy outcome.
-specify the optimal weight gain during pregnancy for a normal adult woman.
-identify principles with regard to increased nutrient needs (calories, carbohydrates, proteins, vitamins, minerals) for most women.
-identify nutrients that may need to be supplemented during pregnancy; provide reasons for supplementation of these nutrients.
-use the food guide pyramid to plan meals for a pregnant or lactating woman.
-identify factors that could lead to unsuccessful pregnancies.
-define fetal alcohol syndrome (FAS); identify facial features characterized by FAS.
-discuss physiological changes that a mother could experience that are associated with pregnancy.
-identify the specific function/role of prolactin and oxytocin in breastfeeding.
-describe the process of the “let-down” reflex.
-discuss the nutritional qualities of human milk.
-define colostrum; identify the importance of colostrum.
-discuss advantages associated with breastfeeding for both the infant and mother; discuss possible barriers that would prevent/restrict breastfeeding.
INFANCY THROUGH ADOLESCENCE
-identify dietary guidelines to meet basic nutritional needs for normal growth/development for an infant.
-describe how growth and development of an infant, child and adolescent are assessed.
-discuss the composition of formula; discuss proper preparation and feeding techniques in formula feeding.
-identify factors that should be evaluated in recognizing an infant’s readiness for solid foods.
-discuss dietary guidelines associated with infant feeding; identify foods and practices to avoid in feeding an infant.
-identify inappropriate feeding practices that can lead to potential health problems.
-compare food allergy to food intolerance.
-identify nutritional problems and concerns associated with pre-schoolers, school age children and teenagers.
-identify several reasons/examples that preschoolers are noted for “picky” eating; discuss appropriate parental responses.
-identify factors that are likely to contribute to obesity in a typical school age child.
-identify healthy advice for healthful snacking from childhood through the teenage years; identify the importance of iron and calcium in the diet of a teenager.
NUTRITION DURING ADULTHOOD
-compare lifespan and life expectancy.
-define tumor; compare benign and malignant tumors.
-identify warning signs that may aid in the early detection of cancer.
-identify the role of calorie and fat intake to cancer risk; identify several examples of food constituents that may have cancer inhibiting properties.
-identify typical physiological changes in aging; discuss recommended diet and lifestyle responses to these physiological changes.
-describe the process of alcohol metabolism.
-identify the site in the human body where most of alcohol metabolism occurs.
-define moderate drinking; identify some possible benefits of moderate alcohol consumption.
-define alcohol abuse; identify some of the major effects of alcohol abuse on the human body.
-define alcohol dependence; identify factors that play a role in developing alcohol dependence.
-identify several strategies utilized to treat alcoholism.
-identify recommendations for dietary changes in the prevention/treatment of nutritional problems in older adults.
-discuss suggestions/guidelines for diet planning for elderly people.
-identify community nutrition services for the elderly.
-identify several warning signs of undernutrition in older people that are part of the acronym DETERMINE.

Methods of Instruction/Course Format/Delivery

The faculty may select from (but are not limited to) the following list of instructional methods:
-lecture
-classroom discussions
-television (video)
-internet (Canvas)
-online learning center (textbook publisher)
-software
-demonstrations
-reading assignments

Assessment

The faculty may assess the student’s knowledge and abilities by utilizing in-class and out-of-class activities. The
faculty may choose from (but are not limited by) the following list of assessment tools:
-examinations
-quizzes
-homework/written assignments
-internet
-attendance
-discussions/classroom participation
-library assignments
-internet assignments
-readings
-research papers
-individual projects
Final course grades are determined by the following scale:
100 – 90 A
89 – 80 B
79 – 70 C
69 – 60 D
59 or below F

Text, Required Readings, Materials, and Supplies

Wardlaw, Gordon and Anne M. Smith. Contemporary Nutrition. Eighth Edition. 2011. McGraw-Hill Publishers,
Dubuque, Iowa.
NutritionCalc Plus 3.0

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